Element 2 of the Drivers of Change model:
2: People and Behavior Theory:
William James of Harvard found that motivated employees work at 80 to 90 percent
of their ability while unmotivated employees work at about 20 to 30 percent of
Hershey, Paul, and Kenneth H. Blanchard, Dewey E.
Johnson. Management of
Organizational Behavior Leading Human Resources. 8th ed. Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Princetice Hall, 2001.
A 1995 National Survey of Executives by the Healthy Companies Institute
98 % Agreed Improving Employee Performance Would Significantly Increase
73 % Claimed that Employees Were Their Companies’ Most Important
But In Ranking Priorities Listed People as 5th or 6th.
Robert H. Rosen with Paul B. Brown,
Transforming Business From the Inside Out, LEADING PEOPLE.
and Behavior theory is represented by the foundation of the organization because
nothing happens without people. Behavior
can take many directions. A large
number of studies have postulated different theories on human-work responses,
motivations and behaviors. If the
organization is aware of the theories of such people as Maslow, McGregor and
Herzberg, then they will focus on organic systems that make positive management
systems and culture. Otherwise,
they will live with the cost and problems of a mechanistic culture.
The purpose of this element of the model is to represent the
interrelationships between people and the work of the organization.
According to our text, “Managers must meet the needs
The text states that companies, in order to be successful,
Notes, Bytes, and Motivation:
Individual and Environmental Motivators in Music and
By James Capozzi, Elizabeth Carter, Brant Goble, Ryan
O’Connell (TNU 2007)
How to Build Motivation Review
In the article, “How to Build Motivation in Today’s Workplace,”
from the March 17, 2003 online edition of the Christian Science Monitor,
author Gregory M. Lamb discusses the growing problem of decreased
employee motivation within the American workforce.
He attributes the problem to factors such as increased
unemployment, few advancement opportunities, dwindling benefits, and
insignificant wage increases.
The result, he explains, is employee burnout, fear, and feelings
of paralysis. Lamb states
that in order to combat these feelings, human-resource experts suggest
that both employees and employers take steps in improving morale.
The article notes that studies indicate workers value a sense of
accomplishment in their work over a high salary, and that challenges
within their work serve as motivation.
It continues by explaining that unless handled properly,
incentives such as money or promotions can actually be
threats from management, especially in times of economic instability,
can cause employees to shut down and adopt a “survival” mode philosophy,
which is counter-intuitive to a “success” mode philosophy.
Lamb makes these practical suggestions for managing others during
difficult economic conditions:
monetary rewards should only be linked to performance; motivate
employees with praise for exemplary work; discover and work with
employees’ personal goals; and treat employees fairly and honestly when
making decisions in order to prevent motivation crises. The article
concludes with suggestions for employees to help improve their own
feelings about work during difficult times.
These include negotiating for benefits, networking, maintaining
visibility, and adopting a long-range vision.
The article by Gregory M. Lamb coincided in all points with the
text, Management of Organizational Behavior, by Hersey, Blanchard
and Johnson. Both sources
suggest that environmental perception plays a vital role in an
employee’s hopes for achieving personal goals, and both agree that when
employees feel frustration in goal attaining, motivation suffers.
Both sources suggest that a Theory X style of management that
includes the use of threats fosters divisiveness between management and
labor and results in de-motivated people. The article and text also
agreed that research indicates employees are looking for more than
monetary reward within the work experience.
Both stated that employees are often looking for a sense of
accomplishment in addition to a salary.
Likewise, both sources suggested that attainable challenges and a
sense of capability act as strong motivating factors for employees.
Finally, both sources stress the importance of honesty and a
sense of fair play on the part of management in order to build an
atmosphere in which employees are motivated.
They explain that once motivated, employees will want increased
work responsibilities and greater authority in making decisions relating
to their jobs.
Hersey, Paul, Kenneth H. Blanchard, and Dewey E.
Johnson. Management of
Upper Saddle River: Prentice
Lamb, Gregory M.
“How to Build Motivation in Today’s Workplace.”
Christian Science Monitor.
March, 2003. <http://www.csmonitor.com>
Motivation Key to Employee
Merriam-Webster defines motivation as
“something that arouses action or activity.” For the parent, motivation
may mean getting a child to pick up his toys. For the teacher,
motivation may involve inspiring students to turn in assignments on time
or prepare for a test. For the cardi-ologist, motivation may mean
getting a patient to eat healthy or exercise. For the manager,
motivation “in the workplace [means] . . . get[ting] things done through
employees” (Accel-Team “Employee”).
In essence, an
examination of motivation is a study of “human nature itself” (Accel-Team
“Employee”). Theories regarding motivation in the workplace suggest a
number of driving forces ranging from the physiological, safety, social,
esteem, and self-actualization needs of Abraham Maslow’s hierarchal
theory to the hygiene-motivators of Frederick Herzberg’s theory
(Hershey, Blanchard, and Johnson 73). According to Maslow, “Man’s
behavior is seen as dominated by his unsatisfied needs” (Accel-Team
“Motivation”). In contrast to Maslow’s basis of needs or motives,
Herzberg theorizes that goals and incentives are the central components
of motivation (Hershey, Blanchard, and Johnson 69). Herzberg suggests,
“People work first and foremost in their own self-enlightened interest,
for they are truly happy and mentally healthy through work
accomplishment” (Accel-Team “Motivation”). Further, he differentiates
between animal needs, or hygiene factors—supervision, interpersonal
relations, working conditions, salary—and human needs, or
motivators—recognition, work, responsibility, advancement
Hershey, Blanchard, and Johnson make a
direct correlation between the theories of Maslow and Herzberg by
identifying Maslow’s “physiological, safety, social and part of the
[as] . . . hygiene
factors” defined by Herzberg (70). Further, Maslow’s esteem needs are
split between Herzberg’s hygiene factors and motivators because esteem
needs can be either status or recognition needs, depending on whether or
not “the position one occupies . . . [has been] gained through family
ties . . . [or] personal achievement” (70). Clearly, Herzberg’s
motivators are closely tied to the highest need in Maslow’s
hierarchy—self-actualization—at which stage “man is totally absorbed in
order to attain perfection through self-development” (Accel-Team
Herzberg’s theory diverges from that of
Maslow in its course. While Maslow sees a person’s work somewhat as a
fulfillment of an inherent destiny, Herzberg sees it as an opportunity
to grow in which anyone can be motivated by job enrichment, or “the
deliberate upgrading of responsibility” (Hershey, Blanchard, and Johnson
71). Ultimately, Maslow’s worker reaches a place in life “characterized
by integrity, responsibility, magnamity, simplicity and naturalness”
driven by innate needs, while Herzberg’s worker reaches the ultimate
stage through a series of enrichments through external factors or
incentives (Accel-Team “Motivation”).
Despite the differences in their approaches,
Maslow and Herzberg suggest that people generally seek “security, social
systems, and personal growth” (Hershey, Blanchard, and Johnson 73). For
the manager to be effective in his own workplace, he will look for ways
to meet those basic needs in his workforce and motivate his people to
accomplish corporate goals. Clearly, motivation is critical to employee
Accel-Team. “Employee Motivation:
Theory and Practice.” Accel-Team.com. 10 August 2007.
---. “Motivation Theorists and
Their Theories.” Accel-Team.com. 10 August 2007.
Paul, Kenneth H. Blanchard, and Dewey E. Johnson.
of Organizational Behavior. 8th
ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001.
Merriam-Webster Online. 13 August 2007.
by Sean M. Alexander (TNU
The Spring 2006 issue of
College Teaching included an article by Anna D’Aloisio entitled
“Motivating Students Through Awareness of The Natural Correlation
Between College Learning and Corporate Work Settings.” The article
briefly discussed the difficulty that college faculty have motivating
students. By the author’s own admission, there were no grand
pronouncements or silver bullet theories. Instead, the author made the
case for emphasizing corporate and business applications regarding the
material covered in class.
The article describes many of the problems in “. . . motivating students
to participate in their own education. . .” (225) The article lists lack
of interest, laziness, social obligations, and a myriad of other reasons
to explain the lack of student interest. Ms. D’Aloisio recommends
professors try to motivate students by explaining how the assigned work
will directly benefit them in their future workplace. Once that
explanation is given, Ms. D’Aloisio believes students may be more
willing to modify their earlier resistance to a course.
Often, students who have a chosen career path experience difficulty in
completing classes that are not directly related to their major. To
combat this, Ms. D’Aloisio recommends emphasizing time management
skills, coherent writing, solid presentation skills, mastery of the
English language, and group cooperation as the main learning objectives
for student’s who take such a position (228). Doing so can provide the
motivation needed for all students to actively pursue excellence in
every course they take.
The article directly relates to Argyris’s Immaturity-Maturity Continuum
referenced in Management of Organizational Behavior (65). Traditional
undergraduate students rarely are considered the most mature of adults.
This immaturity might cause students to be more passive and unwilling or
unable to see the long-term benefits of every course taken. Therefore,
giving carefully designed instruction that emphasizes practical
application can help to engage the students. Clearly, students must take
the initiative to learn and retain course material. However, mature,
motivated professors and teachers can design lesson plans that engage
otherwise disinterested students.
“Motivating Students Through Awareness of the Natural Correlation
Between College Learning and Corporate Work Settings.” College
Spring 2006: 225-229.
Nazarene University Library,
Nashville, TN. 04 Oct. 2006 <http://www.proquest.com>.
Hersey, Paul, Kenneth H.
Blanchard, and Dewey E. Johnson. Management of
Organizational Behavior: Leading Human Resources. Upper Saddle
Prentice Hall, 2001.
Organizational Motivation from an Employee
By Michelle Parkin, Jason Charlton, Brad Coffey, and Pam
motivate employees by using employee opinions across a broad range of
organizational factors. A Cultural Health Index (CHI) survey can assist
management in determining employee motivational factors. The CHI survey
will assist managers in identifying areas for improvement. Managers can
use the statistical method of the CHI to improve the overall employee
satisfaction within their organization.
The CHI will identify three areas of importance: organizational
alignment, capability, and engagement. The organization can develop
resolutions in the areas needing improvement by using an action plan.
The action plan can assist mangers with tracking the progress of the
A CHI survey gauges alignment of management and employee goals.
Management and employee alignment is critical for employee motivation.
The company will be better equipped to succeed with managerial and
employee goals aligned to each other. All employees must agree with the
purpose of the goals within the organization. Attitudes have to align
with organizational goals or the company will never reach its complete
potential.1 Using a survey like the CHI a company can align awareness to
issues, values, and strategy within itself and bring about unity with
A company wants to make sure everyone is on the same page and working
together toward a common goal.
Employee Alignment allows management to ensure all company views cascade
across the company. It is important for all employees to understand the
work they perform matters.3 If the company’s goals and employee’s goals
are not in alignment, then the company is unfocused. The noninvolvement
of upper levels of management can attribute to the failure of
organization when company strategy and employee views are not in
alignment. The noninvolvement of upper management can lead to the
de-motivation of other employees. Organizations properly aligned have
measurements in place to hold upper management accountable.4 The CHI
survey provides management with the ability to gauge and measure
capabilities within the whole organization.
Each position within an organization uses certain tools to better
accomplish goals. These tools may range from business models to the
necessary financial means to operate a department or division. It is the
responsibility of each organization to provide these necessities to
their employees. The responsibility of the employees is to utilize these
tools to reach organizational goals. Companies face the challenges of
understanding the job and the tools necessary for the workforce. The CHI
survey assists managers in answering this question.
Several questions asked in the survey relate to management’s performance
in successfully giving employees the tools necessary to perform their
duties. A majority of these relate to the training provided by the
company. The training of employees is possibly the most important
capability a company can provide in the pursuit of greater motivation
and productivity. According to Christopher S. Frings, the positive
affects of employee training are far reaching. He states, “My
observation during the past 35 years is that employees who receive
regular training from their employers are more productive, develop a
stronger sense of company loyalty, have higher morale, and tend to stay
with an organization longer.”
Employee training is only one of the capability issues that may be
addressed with this survey. The CHI survey will expose any shortcomings
on the part of management with respect to this and many other
organizational issues. The capability of employees to effectively
perform their duties is an issue that must be under constant scrutiny.
If managers are not sufficiently providing the necessary tools to their
employees a CHI survey will expose the shortcomings. Along with
providing capability information, the survey will also gauge the
engagement aspect of managerial employee relations.
Employee engagement can be one of the most important factors in a survey
such as the CHI. Engagement allows the employee the opportunity to voice
his opinions. If an employee does not have the opportunity to voice his
opinions, he will be less motivated to do his job. It is through
engagement that a company can find areas needing improvement. “Gallup
published research proves that engaged employees are more productive
employees. It also proved that engaged employees are more profitable,
more customer-focused, safer, and more likely to withstand temptations
to leave. Many have suspected a connection between an employee's level
of engagement and the quality of his performance.5”
The CHI survey developed by Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) human
resources department has assisted the company in improving employee
motivation. The survey described in this publication uses questions to
gage organizational alignment, capability, and engagement. The employee
can add comments to the survey giving details and descriptions on
improving the organization. A team of employees can analyze the
information on the survey by using graph and charts. The team then
develops action plans to address the areas in need of improvement.
The following is a Cultural Health Index Survey developed by TVA for the
employees in all organizational lines to complete. The survey is
analyzed and answered quarterly.
• The Winning Performance process is a way of life in my business unit.
• TVA’s values and Winning Behaviors are a way of life in my workgroup.
• I know what is expected of me on the job.
• My organization’s current fiscal year performance plans have been
• I feel comfortable reporting an unsafe act or condition.
• Identified industrial safety issues receive a high priority by my
• My supervisor and I worked together in an effective manner to jointly
set my performance objectives for this fiscal year.
• I have the knowledge necessary to explain TVA decisions to people in
• My SBU leader and his/her direct reports provide clear direction.
• I can count on my SBU leader and his/her direct reports to follow
through and do what they say they will do.
• I understand what our unit’s customers expect from our unit and me.
• I use my top skills and abilities everyday doing my job.
• I have the materials and equipment that I need to do my job.
• My supervisor takes the time often enough to talk about my progress on
• The equipment used in my job is in good working condition.
• I receive the training I need to perform my job.
• My workgroup performs well as a team.
• I have seen positive changes in my business unit because of the last
• TVA manages its resources and business processes in a cost effective
• I am challenged and excited by my work.
• I would recommend TVA as a place to work.
• I can trust what I hear from my workgroup.
• My job is not a source of major stress in my life.
• I feel a sense of control over my work.
• Overall, I am able to maintain balance between my work with TVA and my
personal life at home.
• I am proud to work at TVA
• I can trust what I hear from my supervisor.
• I am treated with respect and dignity.
• I know my ideas and opinions are considered when decisions are made.
• My considerations and efforts are recognized and appreciated on a
• Overall, I am satisfied with my job at TVA.
In addition to answering the above survey, employees are able to make
comments on the employee’s view for improvement. Once the surveys have
been analyzed, the organization can develop action plans.
The action plans are given to
owners or people responsible for accomplishing the goal or improvement.
The team presents the action plans formed from the CHI survey to upper
management. The employees assigned to the CHI team are responsible in
holding management accountable for addressing each action plan. As each
action plan is developed and accomplished, the organization must inform
As employees observe their company taking action to improve the
organization, employee motivation will rise. Organizations will have
better productivity and more employee retention. A new survey issued
annually will keep the organization connected to its employees.
Motivated employees and a healthy workplace will align the organization,
give it the capability to reach its goals, and engage the employees with
1. Flint, Norma. "New Survey Measures Employee Alignment and Engagement”
2004 September 6. <http://
2. Employee Alignment “ Align
to Motivate” 2006, Gelb Consulting Group Inc
3. “Employee Alignment”
4. “Employee Alignment with
Business Strategy” 1999-2006
Metrus Group-Measurement-Managed Results-
5. Frings, Christopher S.
“Importance of Training” 2004
6. Employee Engagement “The
Employee Side of the Human Sigma Equation.”
7. Cultural Health Index
Survey, TVA Human Resources Department
8. Action Plan Template, TVA
Human Resources Department
Unfolding the Art of Employee Morale
by: Jennifer Stockling, Helen Martin, and Libby Rutledge (TNU)
Studies have proven that poor employee morale is a result of poor
communication and motivation. “Employee and manager morale dipped even
further toward the end of 2002, and the current climate that businesses
are operating in does not offer any promising turnaround.” (Levine).
Management and employees have the responsibility of contributing to the
improvement and maintenance of employee morale in the workplace.
Management must identify poor morale, the causes of poor morale, and
take action to improve poor morale.
does management identify poor morale in the workplace?
a mental condition related to courage, confidence, and enthusiasm.
of poor morale are:
is not a cause, but rather the effect or result of many factors going
causes poor employee morale in the workplace?
The absence of effective communication between management, employees,
and co-workers are a leading cause of poor morale in the workplace.
Effective communication is the exchanging of information that produces a
desired result. Employees need to understand their objectives. “An
employee without a clear understanding of the goals or without a sense
of how their work fits into the overall goal of the unit, department, or
section, can easily waste time on tasks that aren’t consistent with the
boss’s objectives.” (Javitch) Without clear understanding, a group of
people will hear different expectations from the same information.
(Smith) Effective communication involves personalization, understanding,
Employees also need to know that their managers have concern for their
employees. “If the employee believes the boss doesn’t care about the
task at hand or doesn’t care about the employee, then the employee
probably won’t care about the task, the employer, or the company. And
voila! - you have decreased morale.” (Javitch) In addition, poor
working conditions cause poor employee morale.
It is up to the management of the company to ensure that employees have
standardized, efficient, and suitable working conditions for the
environment. “The workplace should be safe and pleasant. Don’t expect
employees to use outdated, faulty equipment or furniture.” (Levine) An
employee performing a job with unsuitable tools is not going to be as
productive as the employee who has suitable tools. For this reason,
management must standardize not only the process to manufacture the
product but standardize the workstation for each employee and the tools
to manufacture the product. Employees who are working in an efficient
environment are more likely to have a higher output of a quality
product. With this in mind, it is important that the working conditions
are suitable in order to maintain a productive level and produce a
quality part. The lack of suitable working conditions also causes a
higher stress level on employees.
“Job stress is a chronic disease caused by conditions in the workplace
that negatively affect an individual’s performance and/ or overall well
being of his body and mind.” (Life Positive) Job stress is a result of
job requirements not matching the capability, resources, or needs of the
employee, while job insecurity is a change under intense economic
transformations and consequent pressure. Demand for high performance,
increased workload, long hours, and time spent away from families
contribute to stress. Technology-computers, pagers, cell phones, fax
machines, and the Internet pressures employees to operate at peak
performance levels. Workplace culture, personal, and family problems are
other factors that cause job stress. After identifying the causes of
poor morale in the workplace, management must take steps to improve
management improves employee morale in the workplace.
Communication will improve morale. Improving morale
through communication starts with personal contact instead of electronic
communication. (Smith) When using personal contact, the manager needs to
show concern for the employee. Showing concern means using the person’s
name, asking their opinion, and asking how they are. (Javitch) Employee
morale will improve when managers show personal and professional respect
for employees. (Hudson) Communicating goals and recognizing efforts of
the employee improves morale. (Javitch) “Appreciate your employees-
regularly commend individual progress, show pride in the accomplishments
of the team, and visibly celebrate success” (Hudson). Feedback on
performance and goals will lead to improved communication and morale.
“One of the biggest morale busters is placing people in
positions they don’t enjoy or they don’t have the talent, knowledge, or
skill to excel.” (Maroney) The importance of positioning the right
employee into the right job is as important as coming to work every day.
An employee positioned in a job he / she is incapable of performing will
have a sense of failure and low morale. Employees who enjoy the work
they perform have a higher productive rate with better quality. These
employees invest in the company, take a sense of pride in their work,
and have high morale. “Remember the old saying, ‘Find a job you love and
you’ll never work another day in your life.’” (Miller & Smith)
Management can help employees who are not in the job they love deal with
Management needs to learn good stress busters and teach them
to the employees. “As a first step, organizations should identify the
problem.” (Reskin) Understanding the problem leads to arrangement and
implementation of the solution. Ideas taken from the employees or a
consulting firm that will develop prevention and redesign jobs. “Good
job design accommodates a person’s mental and physical ability.” (www.nonprofitrisk.org)
Job design guidelines will help control workplace stress. Employees
taught to relax throughout the day and take regular stretch breaks help
reduce stress. Employees allowed to take charge of their situations,
prioritize tasks, and responsibilities help stress. Management must
allow employees to make practical suggestions to reduce stress.
Co-workers must be honest with one another and realistic about changes
that deal with the physical, emotional and financial well-being that
help reduce stress.
Management must identify poor morale, the causes of poor morale, and
take action to improve poor morale. Management that realizes these needs
and makes efforts to meet these needs will form a cohesive, productive,
and efficient workforce. Unfolding the art of employee morale assists
organizations to protect its most valuable assets, the employees.
Michael Dr. “Solving The Mystery of Employee Morale.”
www.EVERYDAYLEADER.COM . 10 Jul 2003. 8 Aug 2006
David. “Improving Employee Morale.”
Jan. 2005. 18
Aug. 2006 <http://www.entrpreneur.com/article/0,4621,32578,00.html>.
Terri. “Boost Employee Morale.”
www.Sideroad.com. 20 Aug 2006.
JP. “Morale Builders Morale Busters.”
Ph.D., Lyle H. and Alma Dell Smith, Ph.D. “Stress in the Workplace”.
26 Aug 2006.
Ann. “Working with Stress”.
www.2a.cdc.gov. 3 Sept 2006.
Shawn. “Remove your workplace communication barriers: they are costing
more than you think.” Next Level Consulting, LLC. 23
at Work.” www.LifePostive.com.
26 Aug 2006.
“Workplace Stress”. Nonprofit Risk Management Center. 3 Sept
By Kyle McBee, Andrea Miller, Jackie
Hopkins, and Anna Guess
Incentive programs can be a
very important aspect of a company’s business when used effectively.
Employees may need something extra from time to time and this little
extra, will help the company. When an incentive program is effectively
used, it can increase employee motivation, employee morale, and it is
beneficial to the company’s recruitment of other employees. It is the
company’s job to find an incentive program best suited for its work
Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP)
Good managers have always
tried to motivate employees. Companies often spend large amounts of
money trying to make the employees “happy.” If there were one weakness,
it would be in how the companies listen to the employees. United
Airlines listened to its’ employees in July 1994. The employees
announced the purchase of their own company for $5 billion through ESOP
(Employee Stock Ownership Plan). An ESOP gives the employees of a
company the option to purchase shares of the company. So now, in the
case of United Airlines, there was a rise in employee productivity and
morale because the employees feel more important, they “co-owned” the
company. In the case of United Airlines, stocks rose about 120% due to
Every company or small business owner desires a positive employee
attitude, which leads to high productivity and quality. United Airlines
achieved this when the employees took action. However, in the majority
of businesses, management has to make the first move.
Rotating jobs within a company
could be very beneficial, both to the company and to the employee.
Allowing employees to become more familiar with other aspects of the
business also encourages them to be more productive in their own
capacity. The employees see how the “end product” comes about following
their own contribution. For the company it is an opportunity for manager
to observe employees in different environments. The managers have a
chance to see how certain employees adapt to change and/or pressures in
a new area. This could prove to be a helpful as specific employees
become eligible for other promotions.
Not only will job rotation allow the employee to feel more needed, but
it also allows the company to have various employees who are able to
fill if needed.
For Time Spent" program.
This incentive program rewards
employees for not missing days at work. For example, if an employee does
not miss any days in a month, he or she may receive two hours of time
off. This time off is paid for personal time and not considered
vacation. If the time is not used it carries over to the next month. The
following table is an example of time off for time spent:
Time Off For Time Spent
Months Worked Hours Off Rewarded
1 month 2
2 months 4
3 months 6
4 months 8
Time-off is a motivating
factor for employees. Victor Vroom’s expectancy theory relates to this
table, because employees give effort and performance with the expectancy
of a reward. This incentive program gives employees another reason to be
at work everyday, and it demonstrates to the employees, that the company
notices their hard work. The effect of this incentive program is to
increase everyone’s motivation and morale.
To understand how simply this
incentive is; one must first understand Maslow’s Hierarchy Theory.
Maslow’s theory states that humans must achieve basic needs before
moving to the next levels of the hierarchy. Maslow designed five levels
of human needs: physiological, safety, social, esteem and
self-actualization. The first level is fulfilling the basic human needs
of food, clothing, and shelter. The second level is fulfilling the need
of safety, free from fear. The third level is fulfilling social
acceptance. The fourth level is esteem, recognition, and respect.
Finally, the fifth level, self-actualization, says to become your full
potential. With a little imagination, an organization can apply its
needs to each level. Employees earn rewards as they successfully
complete a lower level requirement. The requirements and rewards
increase with each level.
Incentives for employees are a
very essential part of any company whether these incentives are monetary
or just encouraging. Allowing a company to have an overall incentive
program should encourage all employees to do their best. Using positive
reinforcement and encouragement is always a proper way to address
employees. When an employee feels that, he or she makes a difference and
their opinions matter their respect for the company increases.
Incentives, which are properly organized and handled within a company,
can bring about better production, better morale, and happier employees,
which are the goals of most companies. Employees work better when they
have something to look forward too, and employees need to know the
company notices their hard work. Smart and effective incentive programs
can help employees enjoy the job he or she does and this in turn is
beneficial to the company.
1. Hersey, Paul, Kenneth H. Blanchard, and Dewey E. Johnson.
Management of Organizational Behavior: Leading Human Resources.
Prentice-Hall, Inc., 2001.
2. Lang, Joan. “Is it Time to ‘Perk’ Up?” Business Source Premier vol.
19, issue 8 (2006). 29
3. Marken, Andy G.A. “The Effective Employee Incentive Program.” Winston
J. Brill &
Associates February 2004. 28 Aug. 2006
4. Ward, Susan. “Successful Employee Recruitment for Small Business.” 28
Aug. 2006 <http:sbinfOcanada.about.com/od/humanresources/a/attractemployee.htm>
The motivational article for this summary paper was located in
Trevecca’s online library under Business Source Premier. Dave Marinis
wrote the article from American Banker dated April 7, 2006, volume 171,
issue 67, and page 11.
The article discusses “reward and recognition” as a motivational tool
for employees and the lasting impressions that awards can have. The
storyline is about a bank manager running into a former employee and she
reminds him of the cherished award she received from him and had held on
to even after several years. From the article, Marinis explains, “While
in that job I often used the phrase ‘You rock’ whenever one of our
managers would share success stories or exceptional results with the
group. I’ve always been a big believer in simple ‘attaboy’ or ‘attagirl’
notes. It dawned on me that if I told someone, ‘You rock,’ it would make
sense to hand them a ‘U Rock’.” The manager actually went out, purchased
river stones, wrote a big “U” on one side, and then signed it.
Employees received a “U Rock” if they had demonstrated wonderful
customer service or had great sales results. The employee in the story
stresses to her previous manager how much this award meant to her.
The remarkable thing about this story is how a small, inexpensive item
can have such a monumental impact toward the motivation of an employee.
Similarly, in the article, Marinis points out, “A senior manager
telephoning a front-line employee to acknowledge a job well done costs
nothing. Yet the impact can be significant.” It is remarkable to see how
simple praise and acknowledgement can have huge impact on someone.
Whether on a personal or professional level, it is important to remember
the significance of commending others for a job well done.
Janet B. Calhoun
This is a slide we use for discussions.
Found by Patricia Fields (TNU 2006)
Good Motivational Websites
Papers On People and Motivation
Burnout: Identification and
Dale W. Barner (Team Leader), Robin Nicholson, Ken Woods (TNU 2005)
is a condition that affects both employees and business
owners/managers. A caterer that served multiple civic clubs for the
past three years is retiring. Civic club members noted that service
gradually declined in both quality and quantity. Individual burnout
Burnout, as defined by New York psychologist Herbert J.
Freudenberger, PhD., “is a state of fatigue or frustration brought
about by a devotion to a cause, a way of life, or a relationship
that failed to produce the expected reward.” This paper lists basic
identification/symptoms of burnout, treatment options, and life
gold standard for evaluating burnout is the Maslach Burnout
Inventory (MBI). The MBI assesses three dimensions of the burnout
syndrome: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced
personal accomplishment. The MBI then correlate the scores from the
three dimensions of burnout with other information obtained from
respondent(s). Respondent information includes job characteristics,
job performance, personality or attitude measures, health
information, and demographic variables.
The onset of burnout is slow, often goes
unrecognized, and undiagnosed until more severe indicators present
themselves. Onset may occur when unrealistic goals are set and when
the individual or group is over-committed, or loses motivation.
David McClelland, in his “Relationship of Motivation to Probability
of Success,” illustrates a decline in motivation as established
goals exceed fifty percent. The affected individual(s) or group
gradually depletes their energy, enthusiasm, and motivation, which
leads to loss of touch with reality.
Miller, ND, of Gilead Industries, asserts that [the symptoms of]
burnout begins with a life sorrow (excessive demands or traumatic
events). Dorothy Pennachio, in her article “Burnout:
at risk?” claims that burnout occurs in three stages. These stages
are alarm (stress arousal), resistance (energy conservation), and
exhaustion. Managers should observe their employees for unusual
irritability, negativity, frequent headaches, lowered self-esteem,
and increased risk taking. Severe burnout may result in suicide.
III. Treatment Options
Treatment begins by recognizing the above symptoms and behavioral
trends. Next, the individual or manager needs to determine the root
cause (real reason) for loss of motivation and enthusiasm. Both the
organization and individual/group must stop making excuses and admit
there is a problem. Avoiding isolation and talk about personal
concerns and frustrations delays treatment. Individuals need to
reassess personal values and reestablish their personal
relationships with their God. Positive emotions and habits must
replace negative emotions and habits. Over commitments/obligations
lead to burnout. Learn to say no!
can be serious enough to require additional intervention. Initially
this intervention involves reducing/minimizing stress in personal
and professional lifestyles. Increasing physical exercise and
improving nutritional intake (diet) often provide positive changes.
Using guided imagery and/or sublingual messages to reprogram the
mind is beneficial. In more severe cases, a change of employment or
relationship(s) may be necessary. Finally, personal and
professional achievements need consistent recognition and reward.
occurs when an individual or group loses control of their
environment. Onset of burnout is slow and the symptoms may be
masked by or complicated by other factors, such as poor health.
Burnout affects the physical, emotional, and spiritual parts of the
individual. Symptoms listed in this paper are not inclusive, nor
are the treatment methods. Research continues to reveal additional
symptoms and provide additional treatment measures. The
recommendations of this team are for the individual(s) or group
(experiencing burnout) to return to their core values, reassess
their life, and chart a new map for their future. Remember interim
goals allow for interim rewards. A large success is usually the
result of cumulative small successes.
Burnout Prevention and Recovery.
12 Jul. 2005.
Freudenberger, PhD, Herbert J. Worterkaerungen – Burnout. 12
PhD., Christina. Test Developer profiles: The Maslach Burnout
Inventory. 2001. 12 Jul. 2005.
McClellan, David. “The Relationship of Motivation to Probability of
Success.” Management of
8th Ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001.
Robert E. Burned Out or Stressed Out? – Tranquilities for
Persons Experiencing Stress. 12 Jul. 2005.
Henry. MAPP-Motivational Appraisal of Personal Potential: 13
signs of Burnout and
How to Help You Avoid It.
2003. 12 Jul. 2005.
Pennachio, Dorothy L. Medical Economics: Burnout: Are you at
Risk? 2005. 12 Jul. 2005.http://www.memag.com/memaf/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=158986&page
Tips for motivation and avoiding de-motivating employees.
Crooks, Darla Sansom, Callie Clark (TNU 2005)
1. Offer a strong
work environment. Organized, great lighting, spacious
environment; adequate equipment; and occupied by people who care and who
speak in an honest, sensible way. To make employees happy, their basic
needs have to be met. To get the most effort out of an individual, a
persons working environment must encourage those efforts.
2. Reward in a
consistent and quick manner. Inspirational “liberated” rewards
given frequently can help to ensure that people stay motivated. To stay
motivated a person must know and understand the process of cause and
effect. When completing a task that has required maximum effort, an
employee should be rewarded so they know where they stand.
3. Be a leader who
inspires by action, not an authoritarian. Take note of your
employees’ troubles and help them succeed. What is so hard about
telling someone they are “doing a good job”? Why do managers have a hard
time expressing their thoughts?
4. Make employees
feel that their involvement is significant to the
company’s triumphs. Unless I feel that my work and efforts are being
recognized, I do not desire to work unless I know I make a difference.
Influence and inspire your employees with small things that matter. Say
kind words, send thank you notes, package of their favorite candy,
remember their birthday. Show small acts of kindness by letting them
know that they matter to you as the leader and to the organization.
Just make them feel remembered on occasion! It is not rocket science!
5. Recognize all
employees. Regardless of the level of involvement from the
individual employee on any given task, always try to recognize the
efforts that all employees contribute on a consistent basis regardless
of how big or how small they might be. Make the employees feel like
individuals as well as part of the group as a whole. It is very
important to feel as though, even if it is work, there is equality in
the company. Be someone’s friend and as a manager or supervisor, make
them feel like they make a difference.
6. Be innovative.
Find new ways to acknowledge those employees who go the extra
mile. Create monthly or bi-monthly recognition days. For example: Find
ways for the ones who over-achieve to receive a reward that they can
carry until the next innovative idea or achievement is made. This effort
can cause a competitive action to take place in group and team settings
that stands to benefit everyone. Don’t forget to reward and
encourage the employees! Plants won’t grow without water; people won’t
grow without encouragement!
effectively. Knowledge is power. Always ensure that each
person has an understanding of what is expected of him or her in his or
her responsibilities. An employee must have clear expectations to reach
their highest level of achievement for their set goals. Be concise and
thorough. If you’re going to be a manager, learn to communicate with
those you manage!
8. Make successes a
big deal. Commemorate the accomplishment of team goals with
co-employees and supervision. What’s wrong with a good old fashioned pat
on the back? Bragg on them a little, make them feel they’ve made a great
9. Provide valuable and competitive health coverage.
Employees take notice of health coverage policies offered to them. They
understand that if their well-being and their families well-being are
important to the organization that they are more than just a person
providing a service for the organization. The employee will know they
matter and their health is important to the organization. If you do not
take care of your employees, they will not take care of you! Offer them
the best that you can and let them know you are on your toes with their
healthcare concerns. By not caring or by giving the impression of
displacement, employers create animosity between themselves and others
even if it is unintentional.
10. Put into
operation an open-book management program. Ensure trust and
empowerment by allowing employees to view the organization’s financial
records at will. This opportunity can build confidence between the
employee and the company. The privilege can aid in igniting
opportunities for the employee to get involved and excel with unlimited
possibilities. When it all boils down, what is wrong with employees
feeling as though they can trust you as a friend, not just an employer?
Build relationship and trust with your employees and co-workers. Be
personable; after all, you are making your living working with people.
Learn to communicate properly! When management withholds information
about a company, it creates walls between individuals with feelings of
distrust and secrecy.
on what managers Should
not do to motivate employees.
Crooks, Darla Sansom, Callie Clark (TNU 2005)
When trying to motivate
your employees, there are some things that a manager could do that would
have an opposite effect. I hope that these are obvious de-motivators for
most of us.
1. Taking credit for
an employee’s work.
When an employee does
good work, it is the managers job to recognize that employee for their
employees too closely.
Managers often make the
mistake of micro-managing employees. While this can work for some
employees, it can destroy trust and teamwork in others.
3. Not using the
“red-hot stove” method of discipline.
A manager should treat
everyone the same when it comes to discipline. Being inconsistent with
discipline can also breakdown teamwork and trust.
asking employees to work late.
Working late can allow
employees time to catch up on work, yet people need to have time outside
of work that allows them to regroup for work the next day.
5. Dominating your
employees with aggressive behavior.
A good manager needs to
give direction and purpose, yet he or she does not need to be dominating
or overly aggressive to get his or her point across.
There is a difference
in persuading and manipulating an employee. A good manager will persuade
an employee by guiding and encouraging.
dependent on employees and not being a leader.
Management of employees
requires problem solving and facilitating. Managers should lead, not
agree with everyone and show signs of resignation.
8. Avoiding problems
with employees as to not hurt someone’s feelings.
As a manager, it is
your responsibility to take charge and lead the team. If the manager
tries to make everyone happy, the team can suffer.
9. Give an employee
too much responsibility.
If you give a star
performer too much responsibility, that employee may become overworked.
A good manager will empower employees that perform well, but you do not
want to an employee to burn out. Give responsibility a little at a time
to allow that employee to become comfortable with their workload.
10. Asking the wrong
person for advice in decision-making.
Asking the wrong person
on how to do something will result in the wrong answer. An employee may
sense that their talents are disregarded. A good manager should
recognize which employees have the knowledge needed to make that
5 Ways You Killed My Motivation
Anne Stills, Tania Rodriguez, Thomas
Williams (TNU 2005)
There are many reasons why an individual may be unhappy in the
workplace. Several years of study and analysis have brought forth
numerous management and motivational theories. Unfortunately, many
organizations continue to embrace an antiquated paradigm; therefore,
fostering an environment of workers who are unmotivated,
discouraged, and unhappy with their jobs. Because of this, it would
be easy to understand why many individuals began to act out their
displeasure in the workplace. Some workers may express feelings of
hopelessness. These feelings are fostered by the thought that they
may not be able to find a better job (limited or lack of
opportunity), or cannot afford to lose the one their current job.
For those who may posses a variety of skills or formal education,
they may stick with the job hoping the environment will improve.
While this act may be noble, a worker in this mindset should be
aware that the constant stress could surely eat away at their desire
and creative spirit. In contrast, some workers may jump the gun too
quickly. For example, denial of a promotion after spending months
working hard on a project creates feelings of rejection. Your first
instinct may be to quit without a moments thought. This is ill
advised without a solid exit plan.
Below are a few suggestions for those who may find
themselves in an unhappy work environment:
Remain professional. No matter how bad you feel, do not
allow yourself to slip into mediocrity. If you were "passed over"
for that promotion, keep pumping out the same quality work you did
prior to the decision. Maybe that is the problem! Continue to be at
work on time and do your job with enthusiasm, no matter how hard it
Attitude. This is tough but your attitude is everything!
Do not go to work angry, sullen, and dejected. This is a sure
cancer in any organization. Try this approach: each morning as you
get in your car to drive to work, say a little prayer and request
patience and wisdom. Remind yourself daily that this situation is
not forever and stay focused on your goals.
Formulate a plan. If you realize that the organization or
workplace you are in is not the one for you, start formulating an
exit strategy. This plan should include updating your resume’ and
reestablishing contacts to spread the word that you are looking to
make a move. Also, assure the stability of your finances before you
leave your present company. You may require a few weeks cushion as
you transition to another position.
For those workers who feel trapped because of the lack
of skills or opportunity, do not be afraid to reinvent your career
by taking the following steps: go back to school to earn a degree,
take computer courses, or learn a language. It is up to the
individual to seek opportunity for self-improvement.
Finally, all of us must understand that we have some
control over our personal situation. These simple suggestions will
allow us our self-respect and to leave with our heads held high
The objective of this article is two-fold. First, to encourage
those employees who find themselves in unhappy work environments.
Second, this article gives managers/leaders a heads-up on possible
errors they may be making that cause an unhappy work environment.
Managers often make what they consider “real” attempts
to motivate their employees; however, these attempts are often
unsuccessful. The unsuccessfulness of these attempts has
contributed to many issues. As
employees, we want to feel that we have purpose and that the
organization has cared for us. The
following are some common unsuccessful attempts to motivate
employees: small gifts, insincere thanks and praise, insignificant
cash incentives, and the discouragement of fun at work. Small gifts
are gifts such as light up pencils, stress balls`, and clipboards.
These gifts are cute, but the bottom line is that they do not
encourage and motivate employees. All too often, managers give
praise that is too frequent, too common, insincere, and not specific
to the employee. Giving praise in this manner diminishes the
importance and sincerity of the compliment. Organizations are also
famous for trying to motivate employees with insignificant cash
incentives. The management of the organization has not completely
thought through these cash incentives. For example, giving a
five-dollar gift card for a ten-dollar item makes the employee feel
as if they are not “worth” the full ten dollars. Finally, employers
and managers should encourage fun at work. Employees are motivated
most when they are happy to be at their job. Happy employees are
more likely to work faster and harder for their organization than
unhappy employees are.
Number 1-motivation killer-Lack of purpose and/or meaning in the
employees, we MUST feel that the job we do is purposeful and
important. We must feel that what we “do” at our jobs helps other
people. There are many ways to accomplish meaning in the workplace,
but the manager must find the one that is right for their
Number 2- motivation killer-Professional career stagnation
feel there are three situations that bring on career stagnation.
The three situations are as follows: a lack of training and
development, unchallenging work, and no variety in the job. Many
employees interpret a lack of learning and development in their job
as a sign of their unimportance in the organization. When the work
becomes unchallenging, employees become disengaged. When work is
mundane with no variety, employees are sure to be unhappy and
Number 3- motivation killer- Overworked and overstressed
employees are overworked, they will automatically become
overstressed. As employee that has always worked in an understaffed
work environment, I can attest to the above statement. An
understaffed work environment puts extra stress on every other
employee to perform at a higher capacity. Eventually if the
employee cannot perform at this higher capacity, they will shut down
and stop trying. Without some sense of accomplishment with their
work they WILL stop trying to achieve, and will ultimately lose
Number 4-motivation killer – Lack of Significant Incentives
Lack of adequate bonuses or raises: At the end of the year, as an
employer, if you are sitting across the table about to give a
twenty-five cent raise, save it, seems like the company needs it
more. As an employee, there is nothing worse than feeling as if you
receiving something just because the organization has to give you
healthcare benefits: Paying too much for so little is depressing and
discouraging. No one likes to be sick, but if you are, it is nice
to know you are protecting yourself to the best of your ability.
Healthcare benefits are too expensive; therefore, as an employer,
the least you can do is have good healthcare coverage for your
Insignificant gifts given to celebrate special occasions: You should
know if your employee has a hobby, or a favorite pass time.
Number 5-motivation killer – Poor Management
Lack of human relation skills: It is not rocket science. Treat your
employees, as you would want to be treated. That means, no yelling,
no put downs, and no derogatory comments.
Unqualified managers: If you as a manager do not know the process,
ask someone who knows the process. If you do not have all the
information ask for the information. If you do not know how to do
something because it is new, pursue training.
support from managerial staff: Do not ask us to fix something,
change something or lead something and then bail on the team. There
is nothing worse than a manager who does not know the simple meaning
employees, we have a few recommendations to managers; some are a
matter of common sense. For instance, an increase in communication
is a start. If our employers learned to let go of information and
share the knowledge, they would find us as employees, a lot more
cooperative. Develop our minds as well as our future paychecks and
you will have on your hands a very happy employee. Managers, it is
time that you plan and be strategic. Without strategic planning, all
we do is spend the day putting out fires. As employees, we get tired
of that approach.
Finally, managers, do not be afraid to be the change
agent within your organization. Do not be afraid to listen to your
workers because they are the ones on the front lines, and they
understand what does and does not work. An effective leader must
adopt a situational leadership philosophy if he wishes to be
successful and hopes that the organization will remain in business
for the long haul.
How to Maintain and Motivate Workers
BY Pam Gregory and Samantha Shaw (TNU 2004)
When a company is in crisis, the problems are usually easy
to identify, but hard to rectify. The first sign of trouble is poor morale among
the workforce. This, of course, leads to other problems, such as low
productivity and a high turnover rate. In some companies, dissatisfaction with
working conditions or management style may also lead to union activity.
Often times, the management style is one of the root
causes of these problems. Some companies are still trying to operate under a
bureaucratic form of management, which does not work with today's knowledge
based workforce. During World War II (WWII), American businesses introduced more
procedures and control to help facilitate productivity among the unskilled
replacement workers. After WWII, the workforce came home with the experiences
and a comfort of operating by a military style or model. This model had a
single, all-powerful, John Wayne Type leader who told everyone what to do with
no input from the workforce. This model might have worked for our grandparent's
generation. Muscle was king then and muscle powered the economy. People were
used to taking orders and equated following orders with the security provided by
a steady job. However, as work required more knowledge and education, the
heavily controlled bureaucratic management style became more ineffective and
created animosity among the workforce.
In this type of environment, today's workers feel
threatened. When people feel threatened by management, they tend to think they
need a third party to represent them. This is how union activity gets started.
Management sometimes responds by using the confrontation method of treats and
imitation to try to stop the union talk. When applied, the confrontation method
gets immediate results. This method relies on treats and intimation to force
change upon the workforce. The confrontation methods will backfire if used too
frequently and the workforce will resist management in the end.
Soon, the corporate office decides that maybe management
is the problem and starts a series of organizational changes. People at the mid
to high management level start to lose their jobs within the company. This spurs
a growing panic at the management level and people start leaving the company at
a rapid pace. Comprising the technical and professional experience at the
management level is sure to make the tension grow at the workforce level. The
graph below shows how the high performing people are the first to leave the
organization, therefore, the company loses its most talented and skill
Craig Stevens First to Leave Model http://www.westbrookstevens.com/Researchers.htm
Recognition for work performed on the job is one of the
basic human needs. When people do the same routine duties every day it can have
a demoralizing effect on their morale. Making people feel valued and improving
morale is a difficult challenge at times, especially when budget money is tight.
Recognizing employees throughout the year and not just at appraisal time is a
step in the right direction. Small celebrations such as buying pizzas or donuts
when small goals are accomplished add much to the morale of the workers. Another
effective and inexpensive way to recognize and motivate people is to send an
email to their supervisor praising them for a job well done. Praising people
publicly is a very effective way to recognize employees who have gone beyond
their normal job duties. Being generous with praise is an effective way to
manage and motivate people. Praise in public, criticize in private is a good
technique to practice.
One important piece of creating an atmosphere of
appreciation is the sharing of information. When workers feel they are well
informed about the affairs of their business, they are more involved and care
about the future of the company. Establishing an informed workforce helps to
rebuild trust in the management of the organization.
All good managers should understand that behavior and
attitude affects others, especially the people who report to them. Barbara Glanz,
an author, who has written many articles on improving morale in the workplace.
In her article, "Rebuilding Trust in Turbulent Times," Glanz suggests
that one way to help rebuild trust is to establish a CARE Package for the
Workplace. Each letter in the acronym CARE stands for a specific interpersonal
process to apply. C = Creative Communications, A = Atmosphere and Appreciation
for All, R = Respect and Reason for Being, and E = Empathy and Enthusiasm.
Applying values and practicing ethics in the workplace is Glanz's theory on
To get people to want to achieve business goals, as
managers, we must get employees involved in the goal-setting process. People
usually support ideas when they are a part of creating them. Without input from
the employee's who do the hands on work, they will be less likely to become
involved and will think management does not care about their opinion. Another
aspect of setting goals is to listen to the employees' feelings and thoughts and
to act upon them. Goals should be challenging and obtainable. People will not
try as hard to achieve a goal if that feel it is not obtainable. Achieving a
goal set by a person, a manager or as a group is an example of Hertzberg's
Motivation-Hygiene Theory and Maslow's Hierarchy of needs; both include esteem
as an important motivator and a step closer to self-actualization.
In the book, "Gung Ho!" Ken Blanchard and
Sheldon Bowles speak to the importance of cheering others on. Their philosophy
is that completing work, and keeping the team and each individual on the team in
good spirits, requires cheering each other along the way. Cheering means to
outwardly show the team their work is important and they are contributing to the
company as a whole. A manager should send TRUE congratulations when cheering
people. TRUE congratulations are Timely, Responsive, Unconditional, and
Enthusiastic (pg 144). An easy way to remember the concept of motivation,
cheering and goal-setting is by using E=mc2; enthusiasm equals mission times
cash and congratulations (pg 138).
Blanchard, Ken, and Sheldon Bowles. Gung Ho! William Morrow
& Company, 1998.
Glanz, Barbara A. Rebuilding Trust in Turbulent Times.
McGraw-Hill, 1996. 3 May 2004. http://barbaraglanz.com.
Stevens, C.A.; Jerry Westbrook; Jim Nichols; Joe Daily:
"Step 2: Using The Westbrook Model for Understanding Organizational
Elements That Drive Change," American Society of Engineering Management,
21st National Conference Proceedings, October 4-7, 2000.
Stevens, C.A.; Normal Curve Compared to the most Common
Mistakes in Downsizing Workforce. Graph. http://www.westbrookstevens.com/Researchers.htm
Pam Gregory is a native middle Tennessean who has enjoys the
scenic hills and the peaceful country life. She has been married for 26 years to
her high school sweetheart and they have two children, Laura age 17 and Evan age
10. Pam is currently employed at Gap Inc. as a Financial Analyst. Pam is
currently enrolled in the Trevecca University MHR program and will receive her
Bachelor of Arts in Management and Human Relations in December 2004.
Samantha Shaw has over four years of experience in Human
Resources and is currently seeking a job in the HR field. Her specialties
include: Benefits, Employee Relations, Payroll, and Administrative duties.
Samantha completed her Associate degree at Volunteer State Community College in
1998. Samantha has one son and three stepchildren. Samantha is currently
enrolled in the Trevecca University MHR program and will receive her Bachelor of
Arts in Management and Human Relations in December 2004.
Special thanks to Professor Craig Stevens, www.westbrookstevens.com,
for all his help with this project.
Principles of Management 2005)
According to an article written by Jason Gracia, “The Single Most
Important Principal of Employee Motivation,” one of the most common
reasons managers fail in motivating their employees is by using one
“cookie cutter” method of motivating and rewarding all of their
employees. The article
suggests that managers, in order to be successful, should put forth the
time and effort to learn what things motivate their employees.
According to the article, all
employees are different and find motivation in different things.
Some employees find monetary rewards motivating while others find
more inspired by acknowledgement of good job performance.
The article concludes that taking the time and concentrated effort
to uncovering the motivators that drive individual employees is the best
thing that one could do for his or her employees.
This article supports many of
the thoughts conveyed by the textbook.
The textbook states that managers must meet the needs and
aspirations of his or her followers. This would require the manager take the time to learn what
sparks desire and motivation within each employee.
Chapter two of the assigned reading discusses goal-oriented
behavior. The text states
that human behavior consists of a general motivation spawned from a desire
to attain some specific result. It
further states that a manger must know which motives or needs of people
evoke a certain action at a particular time.
As stated in the article selected, all employees have different
motivators. What motivates
one employee may be completely insignificant to another.
Single Most Important Principle of Employee Motivation
around the world are committing a fatal error that is depriving their
people and companies of improvement, progress, and success. While very few
know of the dilemma, its solution is the most important and powerful
principle that any coach or manager will ever learn.
stepping into an enormous Kitchen overflowing with uncooked meals and
desserts. All of the necessary ingredients for a countless assortment of
dinners are there - you simply have to prepare them.
imagine preparing and cooking them in identically the same way. It doesn't
matter what meal you are dealing with - you follow one set of instructions
your favorite meal is a thick and juicy hamburger. If you're actually
preparing and cooking a hamburger, you're right on track. But what if
you're dealing with ice cream sandwiches. How well do you think throwing
some ice cream onto a grill would work? Trying to flip it so both side get
Great Management Mistake
and cooking ice cream in the same manner as a hamburger would obviously
result in failure. You can't treat all ingredients and meals as the same
thing - they are all different, requiring different methods and techniques
to achieve their particular result.
greatest management mistake should becoming painfully clear: many managers
treat all employees as the same assortment of ingredients trying to
motivate them toward greater success using one cookie-cutter approach.
as failure results from throwing ice cream on a grill, so too will a
manager fail in inspiring his people if he attempts to do so using a
people on your team are as different as baked beans and apple pie. They
each work from a unique set of motivators, responding to some with excited
action and others with boredom or even anger.
up to you to discover what drives each one of your team members. What
elements excite them? What elements turn them off? It may take a little
time and concerted effort on your part, but uncovering the powerful
motivators that drive your people will be the best thing you can do for
you and your team.
you may respond to financial rewards or incentives, but that doesn't mean
everyone on your team will share your sentiments. Listen to your people.
Recognize and utilize their motivators. You are dealing with a wide
assortment of ingredients, and following this principle will allow you to
prepare each one with amazing success.
Jason Gracia - Motivation123
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and ideas to help you get and stay motivated in an instant at the
Motivation123 Web site.
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