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Hello Class (we'll change this site as we meet in class)




Here is our Statistics class' page.  We will try to keep this page up-to-date with materials that the class sees as important.  As a warning, it is very difficult to earn an "A" in statistics.  My job is not to give out "A's," but rather to help you learn Statistics so you can become more valuable to your employers, staff, customers, clients, or the organization you may own.  To do well in Statistics requires about 20 hours a week of studying and working problems.  You can do this if you try and I promise to help.



Some Handouts



Examples and Templates for Writing Objectives
Option I


Examples and Templates for Writing Objectives
Option II and III




(The following material will change after each class)


Week 1:


1. Read introduction and Chapters 1-3, pp. 9-53 and follow corresponding part of module material. 


2. Do as much as you can of Practice Set #1. 


Homework:   Download Here


Presentation for Week 1


Introduction to Instructor


  1. Statistics Defined at top of page

  2. Descriptive Stats 

  3. Inferential Stats


  1. Variable Types

  2. Measures of Central Tendency (page 48) describe and locate the center of the data 

  3. Mean (average of data set) 

  4. Sample mean (Xbar) 

  5. Population Mean (m) 

  6. Median (Sample median = x^~ = middle value) 

  7. Mode (measurement that occurs most often)


  1. Stem-and-Leaf Plot

  2. Histogram


Week 2:


1.  Do (to be handed in) Problem Set #1 assigned in the first class. 


2. Read Chapters 3-5, pp. 53-99 and follow corresponding part of module material. 


3. Do Practice Set #2 and be prepared to share your work in class.


Week 2 Presentation




Here is how you use Excel to calculate the basic stats.


Step 1.     Find your original disk with The Excel Operation System on it, you may need it.


Step 2.    Open Excel (Go to help and look up Statistics).  Excel will walk you through the statistics information.  (at this point you are doing Descriptive Statistics and Z test.)


Step 3.    You will find the appropriate Excel capabilities on the Main Toolbar, under Tools.


Step 4.     Look at Data Analysis


Step 5.     Select Descriptive Statistics and/or Z Test.  Play around with the functionality of the software, call your class mates, and ask some computer people you know to help you figure out how to manipulate the data.  It will be a great tool.


The first part of the class was spent working through problem set number 1 then taking the Quiz.


The rest of the class was spent working the practice set number 2 and learning the new material.  The new material is available below.


Link to Descriptive Stats on This Website.


Week 3:


1.  Do (to be handed in) Problem Set #2 you were given in the previous class. 


2. Read Chapters 6-7, pp. 102 - 123, and 128 - 141 and follow corresponding part of module material. 


3. Do Practice Set #3 and be prepared to share your work in class.



Week 3 Presentation


Download Homework for Week Three


During class we had several typos in the module's materials.  Here is a link to see the correct  formulas for t-test and z-test.



If we want to be 95% sure (for a Z value on a normal distribution curve), then  [ (x bar) + or - (2 (SDV/(Square Root of N)))       

From Page 35 in workbook.  


Why 2 x SDV here? 


We wanted 95% confidence in our numbers. The Empirical Rule for 95% confidence is 2 SDVs. 


This means our number has to fall within 2 Standard Deviations of the Mean. To find percentages other than those below, we would go to the z distribution tables found in most statistic books.



Design a method (process) that will help you solve the problems.  



Null Hypothesis A statement which we consider true until we have evidence which leads to its rejection.


Confidence Intervals:  What are the assumptions behind tests of hypotheses and confidence intervals?


Test of hypotheses and confidence intervals require the assumption that the observations are normally and independently distributed random variables.


A Concept Important to Your Research for Your Project:



Randomization Both the allocations of the experimental material and the order in which the individual runs or trials of the experiment are to be performed are random To Eliminate Biases.  Used to destroy bias in an experiment


Random Variable is the value assigned to the outcome of a random sample.





Z Statistic A statistic having the standard normal (or Gaussian) distribution.  It arises in test of a mean which is compared to a known variance.



Degrees of Freedom Are the number of independent elements that go into a statistic. An independent comparison. Number of pieces of information that are independent of one another in that they cannot be deduced from one another.


Assumptions to justify the t-test: The observations Yi (just another name for observations) are normally and independently distributed.



Look again at the table above for the Z and t tests.  The t-test uses a smaller sample and/or unknown population variances, therefore...The t-test has heaver tales.  The t-distribution is less exact than the Z-test therefore the deviation from the mean will be more spread out. 


Also, remember the t-table just gives us the information on the right side of the "normal-looking" curve.  We may be looking for a number smaller than a given value.  


To find the information on the left side (or possibly values greater than a specific number),  then we would use the value we find in the table and subtract it from the mean.  For numbers between two values, or two standard deviations, or within a certain confidence interval from the mean we would use a two tailed test.  



Week 4:


1.  Do (to be handed in) Problem Set #3 you were given in the previous class. 


2. Read pp. 99 - 101, 124 - 127, and 150 - 154 and follow corresponding part of module material (especially chi square test). 


3. Do Practice Set #4 and be prepared to share your work in class. 


4. Scan (reading some parts in detail) How to Lie with Statistics by Darrell Huff and Irving Geis on library reserve.



Week 4 Presentation


Download Homework for Week 4



We spent most of the time just working problems, so we had very few slides.



Week 5:


1. Do (to be handed in) Problem Set #4 you were given in the previous class. 

2. Read Chapter 8 and postscript, pp. 155 - 190. 

3. Hand in your Summary Paper.


Week 6:


Hand in your Statistics Project Exercise Sheets with Instructor Comments Cover Sheet. (p.79).

Keep a copy of the returned Instructor Comments Cover Sheet and the Statistics Project Exercise Sheets. Be sure to send a copy of all these graded documents to your Project Thesis Coordinator (with comments).


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